Consider the following observations:
1. Coral reefs are more common in Pacific Ocean in comparison to Atlantic Ocean
2. Largest coral reef of the world is located in Pacific Ocean
3. Coral reefs are among the zones of highest marine biodiversity on Earth
Which among the above observations is / are correct?
- The Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean region including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific account for 91.9% or total Coral reefs in the world. Southeast Asia accounts for 32.3%, while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs only account for 7.6%.
- Largest Coral reef in the world is Great Barrier Reef. It is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia. It is composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometres. This reef can be seen from outer space and is the world’s biggest single structure made by living organisms. It is a World Heritage Site (1981). It is also a state icon of Queensland, made by Queensland National Trust. A large part is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, established by Government of Australia through Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975.
- Belize Barrier Reef is world’s second largest Coral Reef which is a part of 900 kilometre Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. It was described by Charles Darwin in 1842 as “the most remarkable reef in the West Indies”.
- Pulley Ridge is located off the coast of Florida, United States. It is deepest photosynthetic coral reef known so far.
- Raja Ampat Islands, largest marine national park in Indonesia are located in Indonesia and New Guinea and comprise 1,500 small islands .It is known for highest recorded marine biodiversity on Earth. It makes the Coral Triangle which is a triangular shaped area of the tropical marine waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste. These waters contain at least 500 species of reef-building corals in each ecoregion. Coral Triangle as well as Raja Ampat Islands is considered to be the global epicentres of marine biodiversity. INWF considers the region as a top priority for marine conservation and has launched the Coral Triangle Program in 2007.
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module