The latest Census data has made some journalists put forward that Indian population is undergoing distress migration.  A migration stimulated by which among the following is called distress migration?

  1. Extreme economic deprivation
  2. Favourite labour or climate conditions
  3. Natural and environmental disasters
  4. Social oppression

Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] Only 1, 3 & 4

India is under distress migration- this is what is the finding of P Sainath, of The Hindu. According to him, India’s urban population has risen more (91 million more than in the 2001 census) than the rural population (90.6 million more than in the 2001 census). Nearly half the people in states like Tamil Nadu already live in urban settlements. Distress migration has been defined as such movement from one’s usual place of residence, which is undertaken in conditions where the individual and/or the family perceive that there are no options open to them to survive with dignity, except to migrate. Such distress is usually associated with extreme paucity of alternate economic options, and natural calamities such as floods and drought. But there may also be acute forms of social distress which also spur migration, such as fear of violence and discrimination which is embedded in patriarchy, caste discrimination, and ethnic and religious communal violence. In other words, migration is distress if it is motivated by extreme economic deprivation, natural and environmental disasters, or forms of gender and social oppression which are perceived to be intolerable.

In this statement, second statement is not correct because it’s a definition of seasonal migration.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module