The mangrove flora are characterised by:
1. Pneumatophores
2. Vivipary
3. Increased concentration of salts in cells
4. Sunken Stomata
Select the correct statements from the codes given below:

Answer: [D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Mangroves are salt tolerant plant communities which are circumtropical in distribution and are found along the tropical and sub-tropical intertidal regions of the world between 24° N to 38° S. These areas, on an average, receive 1,000 mm – 3,000 mm rainfall and have temperatures ranging between 26°c and 35°c. They exhibit a number of morphological and physiological adaptations in order to survive in such a harsh physical environment on account of lack of oxygen, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation. These adaptations include presence of fleshy leaves, breathing roots called as ‘pneumatophores’, buttress formation, stilt roots, ‘vivipary’, sunken stomata, and increased concentration of salt in the cells etc.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module