With reference to the Khilafat Movement, consider the following statements:
1. This movement was essentially to express support for the Caliph of Turkey against the allied powers
2. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was one of the prominent leaders of Khilafat Movement in India
3. The movement ended with an agreement between its leaders and the British
Which among the above is / are correct statements?

Answer: [A] Only 1 & 2

The Khilafat Movement was essentially a movement to express Muslim support for the Caliph of Turkey against the allied powers particularly Britain. The Muslims were especially upset about the future of the Islamic places of worship after the allied powers had partitioned the Turkish Empire. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. M.A. Ansari and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of the movement.

The Ali brothers were arrested during the course of the war only to be released from jail after the war was over. This movement reached a crescendo in Bengal, North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab. On 19th October 1919, the country observed the Khilafat Day. On 19th January 1 920, the Ali brothers met the Viceroy to apprise him of Indian sentiments in regard to position of the Sultan of Turkey but in vain.

A Khilafat Manifesto was also prepared. In March 1920 a committee under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali was also sent to England.  But the committee failed to bring the British around to its view. After a while the Khilafat movement came to an end in 1922 when Mustapha  Kemal led a revolution in Turkey and abolished the office of the Caliph.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module