In its nuclear energy policy, India has adopted the closed fuel cycle. Consider the following statements with this reference:
1. The spent fuel is re-processed to recover useful fissile and fertile materials to use again in reactors
2. The spent fuel re-processed from Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) can be used as nuclear fuel in fast breeder reactors
Which among the above is / are correct statements?

Answer: [C] Both 1 & 2

As a policy, India has adopted a closed fuel cycle, where the spent fuel is regarded as a resource material and thus no spent fuel is disposed off. All the spent fuel is re-processed to recover useful fissile and fertile materials to recycle back in the reactor as a fuel.  For the spent fuel from indigenous Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) the balance, other than fissile and fertile materials, amounts to barely about half percent of the original mass of thenuclear fuel.  This too is converted and contained in stable glass form through a process of vitrification.  The recovered fissile and fertile material in the form of Uranium and Plutonium is used as nuclear fuel in fast breeder reactors. (Lok Sabha Questions; March 2015)

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module