Identify the artificial ecosystems from the below:
1. Pisciculture tank
2. Agricultural land
3. Zoo
4. Aquarium
5. National Parks
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [A] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Artificial Ecosystems

An artificial ecosystem is a human made system of plants, animals, and people living in an area together with their surroundings. The pisciculture tank is an artificial ecosystem. A farmland is also an artificial ecosystem. It is simpler, because the farmer gives priority to one type of plant only, fighting against all those animal and vegetal species that might damage it. The energy is supplied by man, through machinery, fertilisers, plant chemicals, selected seeds, farming practices. Then, the biomass (harvest) is removed when ripe. This makes the ecosystem an open system, i.e. one that depends on external sources to reintroduce fertilising substances, fit for feeding a new process of birth and development of organic matter (the plants). A natural ecosystem fertilises itself, instead, since the biomass remains in its original place A house is also a small artificial ecosystem. Items, food, solar energy, water, etc. come from the outside and the solid and liquid waste generated by human activities is disposed of outside. The same applies to the city. It depends on external sources for the supply of food, building materials and other resources it needs to develop, and disposes of its waste outside (dumping grounds and incinerators), that do not contribute, therefore, to the survival of the city as an ecosystem. Zoo parks often create artificial ecosystems by placing animals in human-made areas similar to their natural habitat. People can also create lakes in the middle of desserts and keep penguins in warm climates, but only if they create an artificial ecosystem. Even a spacecraft can contain an artificial ecosystem (like an aquarium), but such ecosystems have almost no value except for exhibition and studying a bit of ecology. National Parks are not artificial ecosystems.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module