In recent times, it has been reported that the Polar ice is getting melted very quickly. What contributions is / are made by Polar ice packs in the environment of earth?
1. The Polar ice packs retrain the release of methane from the arctic permafrost
2. The Polar ice packs reduce heat loss from the oceans
Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] Both 1 & 2

Sea ice helps to constrain methane in permafrost and in clathrates. Arctic methane release triggered by a breakdown in sea ice could cause an abrupt climate change event, potentially similar in some ways to the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum event, or to the great dying, a mass extinction event. Sea ice has an important effect on the heat balance of the polar oceans, since  it insulates the (relatively) warm ocean from the much colder air above, thus reducing heat loss from the oceans. Sea ice has a high albedo — about 0.6 when bare, and about 0.8 when covered with snow — compared to the sea – about 0.15 – and thus the ice also affects the absorption of sunlight at the surface. The sea ice cycle is also an important source of dense (saline) “bottom water”. While freezing, water rejects its salt content (leaving pure ice). The remaining surface water, made dense by the extra salinity, sinks, leading to the productions of dense water masses such as Antarctic Bottom Water. This production of dense water is a factor in maintaining the thermohaline circulation, and the accurate representation of these processes is an additional difficulty to climate modelling.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module