With reference to the Delhi Sultanate, which among the following observations is / are correct?
1. Delhi Sultanate was a theocracy based on tenets of Islam
2. Delhi Sultanate functioned according to wisdom and political pragmatism of the rulers
3. The spirit of religious toleration prevailed within the common people
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [B] Only 2 & 3

1. Delhi Sultanate was a theocracy based on tenets of Islam

This is a wrong statement. It is true that the influence of Islamic thinking and tradition definitely had a bearing on the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, but it was the need of balancing different dominant groups within the ruling elite and the local challenges which primarily governed the decision making process. The state in Delhi Sultanate was not a theocracy because shara as defined by the clergy was hardly the core concern of the sultans. Though, the Sultanate was formally Islamic in character, yet it was based not on social equality, but on hierarchy. In practice, there was little distinction between the lives of the ordinary people, Hindu or Muslim’.

2. Delhi Sultanate functioned according to wisdom and political pragmatism of the rulers

This is a correct statement.  In the absence of any written law or constitution the state in the Delhi Sultanate functioned according to wisdom and political pragmatism of the rulers.

3. The spirit of religious toleration prevailed within the common people

Growth of Sufism and Bhakti movements during the rule of the Delhi Sultanate indicates the spirit of toleration (among people ) prevailing within the state.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module