Consider the following statements:
1. The Indigo revolt of 1859-60 was one of the most militant and widespread peasant movements of early nationalist era
2. The revolt was supported by the intelligentsia of Bengal
3. There was a complete unity among the Hindu and Muslim peasants
Which among the above statements is / are correct?

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

All the statements in this question are correct. Here are some important notes about this revolt:
• The Indigo revolt happened in 1859-60 in the eastern part of Bengal.
• This was one of the most militant and violent movement.
• The movement was because of the problems of the Indigo Planters, the problems were such as
o The indigo planters, mainly Europeans, compelled the peasants to grow indigo and paid them very small amount in the form of advance.
o The price paid for indigo plants was always below the market price.
o The peasants were forced to use their most fertile land for the cultivation of indigo.
o The planters regularly cheated the peasants, as the remaining amount was mostly never paid fully.
o The peasants were not allowed to settle his account.
o Through their armed Lathials, force was used by the planters in the form of kidnapping, illegal confinement, attacks on women and children, looting, demolition of house and destruction of crops.
• The revolt began from Govindpur village in Nadia district of Bengal where two peasants Digamber Biswas and Bishnu Biswas gave up indigo cultivation. This was followed by a struggle with the Lathials and revolt spread in many parts of Bengal.
• Strikes, legal actions, violence, social boycott of planters etc. were some of the tools used in the revolt.
• Peasant organization to some extent, Hindu Muslim Unity, support from Bengal intelligentsia made the revolt more effective.
• Neel Darpan of Din Bandhu Mitra portrayed the oppressed peasants.
• The Indigo revolt was used to be raised as a issue when the nationalistic movement began.
• Finally, Indigo commission was appointed which banned indigo cultivation by the use of force.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module