The birth of Indian National Congress was culmination of a process of political awakening that had its beginnings in the 1860s and 1870s. Consider the following statements with this reference:
1. During this period, younger and more radical nationalist intellectuals entered into politics
2. Some of the older organizations became reactionary and moribund
3. First of the English newspapers were established during this period
Which among the above is / are correct statements?
The new political thrust in the years between 1875 and 1885 was the creation of the younger, more radical nationalist intellectuals most of whom entered politics during this period. They established new associations, having found that the older associations were too narrowly conceived in terms of their programmes and political activity as well as social bases. For example, the British Indian Association of Bengal had increasingly identified itself with the interests of the zamindars and, thus, gradually lost its anti-British edge. The Bombay Association and Madras Native Association had become reactionary and moribund. And so the younger nationalists of Bengal, led by Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Bose, founded the Indian Association in 1876. Younger men of Madras — M. Viraraghavachariar, G. Subramaniya Iyer, P. Ananda Charlu and others — formed the Madras Mahajan Sabha in 1884.
(Excerpt source: India’s Struggle For Independence, Penguin)
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