Consider the following statements:
1. Most of the top oil producing countries are in deserts
2. Most Deserts fulfil the conditions that must be present for oil reservoirs to form
Which among the above statements is/ are correct?
The first statement is incorrect. Only 3 of the top 10 are “desert” countries. Here are the others with their 2009 production rank shown in parentheses: Russia (2) United States (3) China (5) Mexico (6) Canada (7) Venezuela (9) Norway (10). Second statement is correct. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil; a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in; and a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface. Within these reservoirs, fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it, although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs. Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, they often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until either reaching the surface or becoming trapped within porous rocks (known as reservoirs) by impermeable rocks above. However, the process is influenced by underground water flows, causing oil to migrate hundreds of kilometers horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir. When hydrocarbons are concentrated in a trap, an oil field forms, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping.
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module