With reference to devotional poetry in India, consider the following statements with respect to Abhanga:
1. Abhanga poetry is characteristically used by the saint-poets of the Varkari Panth
2. Sant Tukaram is known as father of Abhanga poetry
3. Each abhang is usually made up of four lines, with a characteristic rhythm
Which among the above statements is / are correct?
Abhanga literally means unbroken. It’s a Poetic form characteristically used by the saint-poets of the Varkari Panth, who worship god Vithoba. Each abhang is usually made up of four lines, with an abbc rhyme scheme. Although each abhang is a complete poem in its own right, they are often strung together in groups, to create either a longer narrative poem (in which each abhang stands as one segment) or a group of poems devoted to a common theme. Such versatility made it one of the dominant poetic forms in the Marathi language, just as the doha form is ubiquitous to medieval and modern Hindi.
The second statement in this question is not correct. Sant Tukaram (1577–1650) was Varkari Sant and spiritual poet of the Bhakti. He is widely considered to be the first modern poet of Marathi. Tukaram was a devotee of Vitthala or Vithoba and a disciple of Bahagat Namdev. His poetry is considered to be the zenith of the literary development by the Varkari sect in Marathi Language. He is best known for many Abhangas written by him; but he is not the father of Abhanga poetry. The Abhangas were sung first by the Varkari saints like Namdev, Dhyaneshwar, Eknath and Tukaram in Marathi. None of them is known as father of Abhanga but chronologically, Namdev was oldest of all.
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module