Among which of the following tribes of India, you will see the behaviour called “transhumance”?

1. Gaddis

2. Bakarwals

3. Dongria kondh

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [A] Only 1 & 2

There are some animal rearing communities resorting to a definite cyclic movement along with their animals between two areas. Movement of animal grazers in the mountainous areas between upland pastures and valley areas seasonally is a typical example of such regular cyclic movements. These people take their animals to the higher reaches of the mountains during summer to take advantage of the grazing facilities there. However, during the winter the upland pasture areas become too cold and often get snow covered. Therefore, these people bring their animals back to the lower valley areas where they have their permanent residences. They generally follow definite routes and the mountain pastures they visit during summer are also fixed. Such regular seasonal migration along with animals, between two fixed areas is called transhumance. The Gaddis and Bakarwals of the Himalayas are known for such migration behaviour. (Geography by Surrender Singh)

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module