Consider the following statements with reference to Tantricism in medieval India:
1. The key reason for the development of Tantricism was the absence of contact between tribal people and Brahmanas
2. The role of woman in tantric practices is central
3. Shudras were not allowed to practice Tantricism
Which among the above is / are correct?

Answer: [D] Only 2

The major reason for the development of Tantricism was the Brahmanization and Sanskritization of hitherto forested and tribal areas. So first statement is incorrect.

In Tantricism, women and Shudras both were allowed to be initiated. Thus, third statement is incorrect.

Third statement is correct. In tribal societies women always have been given a higher status; and sexual rituals played an important role which according to tribal society promotes the fertility of the earth. In fact the role of woman in tantric practices is central due to her ability to reproduce; hence, she symbolizes the notion of fertility.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module