Over a large part of North Eastern India, the shifting cultivation despite being called by different names has some common features. Which among the following is / are those features:
1. Rotation of the fields and use of fire for clearing the land
2. Use of draught animals as main labour input
3. Different patches of land are cleared for different crops
4. Hunting and gathering as important subsidiary activity of shifting cultivators
Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [A] Only 1 & 4

Under this system the land piece is used for quite some years until the fertility is dropped. After that the farmers move to the new plots. It is practiced by tribal and also known as Burn and slash cultivation. It is known as jhoom in Assam, Onam in Kerala, Podu in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The same is known as Bewar in Madhya Pradesh.

Over a large part of Northeastern India the chief characteristics of shifting cultivation, while having different local names are found to be the same. These are

  • rotation of fields
  • use of fire for clearing the land
  • keeping the land fallow for regeneration for a number of years
  • use of human labour as main input
  • non-employment of draught animals
  • non·use of the plough, but instead very crude and simple implements such as dibble sticks and scrapers, are used, and
  • all the crops being grown are mixed together.

Furthermore, in most parts of Northeast India it is found that hunting and gathering is an important subsidiary occupation of the shifting cultivators.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module