With reference to the Nyaya philosophy, which among the following statements is / are correct?
1. Nyaya is predominantly based on reasoning and logic
2. According to this school, the only way to attain liberation is obtaining valid knowledge of the external world and its relationship with the mind and self
3. The final goal of this philosophy is to set out the methods and conditions of determining true knowledge
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [A] Only 1 & 2

Statement-1: Nyaya is predominantly based on reasoning and logic

This statement is a correct statement. The Nyaya system of philosophy was established by the sage Gautama. It is primarily concerned with the conditions of correct knowledge and the means of receiving this knowledge. Nyaya is predominantly based on reasoning and logic and therefore is also known as Nyaya Vidya or Tarka Sastra — “the science of logic and reasoning.”

Statement-2: According to this school, the only way to attain liberation is obtaining valid knowledge of the external world and its relationship with the mind and self

The above statement is a correct statement. Using systematic reasoning, this school of philosophy attempts to discriminate valid knowledge from invalid knowledge. This philosophy asserts that obtaining valid knowledge of the external world and its relationship with the mind and self is the only way to attain liberation.

Statement-3: The final goal of this philosophy is to set out the methods and conditions of determining true knowledge

This is not a correct statement. The philosophy says that if one masters the logical techniques of reasoning and assiduously applies these in his daily life, he will rid himself of all suffering. But the methods and conditions of determining true knowledge are not the final goal of nyaya philosophy. It sees logical criticism as an instrument that enables one to discriminate valid from invalid knowledge. The ultimate goal of nyaya philosophy, like that of the other systems of Indian philosophy, is liberation — the absolute cessation of pain and suffering.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module