In recent years there has been a decline in Female Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) in India. What could be the possible reason(s) for this?

  1. Rising male incomes and education
  2. Rapid increase in female participation in education
  3. Preferences of educated women for white-collar service employment

Select the correct option from the codes given below:
 

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

This question is based on Economic Survey 2014-15. The survey notes that in recent years there has also been a decline in the labour force and workforce participation rates of women. A large number of analysts have ascribed this to a rapid increase in female participation in education, both in the rural and urban areas.
We note here that very low and stagnating female labor force participation rates in urban India over the past 25 years. This stagnation is surprising given that it took place at a time of high GDP and earnings growth, a sizable fertility decline, a rapid expansion of female education, and rising returns to education. A combination of demand and supply
side effects have played a role in accounting for this stagnation. On the supply side rising male incomes and education have reduced female labor force participation. Second, as the survey notes, there is a rapid increase in female participation in education, both in the rural and urban areas. This in part is driven by the preferences of educated women for white-collar service employment and stigmas attached with working in other  sectors.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module